Geronticus eremita
English: Northern Bald Ibis.
German: Waldrapp.
French: Ibis chauve.
Order: Ciconiiformes.
Family: Threskiornithidae.
70-80 cm.
125-135 cm.
The Northern Bald Ibisis easily distinguishable. The only species with which some confusion could occur is the Glossy Ibis, which overlaps distribution areas in the Iberian Peninsula. The Glossy Ibis has feathers on its head, is smaller and less robust. Its legs are very long compared to the Waldrapp. In flight, the Northern Bald Ibis has slightly more pointed wings and a shorter neck, giving it a very different silhouette from the Glossy Ibis.
Both sexes have a very similar plumage that makes it very difficult to sex this species through this variable. In terms of size, the female is usually somewhat smaller.
It is possible to recognize 3 different ages:

Juvenile specimen: these individuals have the face and throat with brown feathers with white dots. They lack the characteristic feathers on the head and nape. The plumage, in general, has muted tones, without shine. The lesser coverts are black.

2nd year specimen: apparently these are individuals with a plumage closer to adult plumage. These specimens still retain much of the feathers on the face and throat, but with great wear. The feathers of the nape appear, still without the final size. The rest of the plumage begins to take bright tones. The lesser coverts begin to appear with reddish tones.

Adult specimen: recognizable by the feathers of the nape. The face, much of the head and throat are completely featherless. Very bright plumage. Lesser coverts already show iridescent metallic reflections of green, brown, reddish and/or purple tones.
The specimen in the image has retained P10 from the previous generation. P9 and P1 are in the process of growth. S17 is in the process of growth.
Primaries: 10 per wing.
Secundaries: 17-20 per wing.
Rectrices: 12.


Adult specimen:
Beak tip to pupil center:

Adult specimen


1.- Right wing primaries. 2.- Primaries. 3.- Tips of primaries details. 4.- Inner vane details of primaries. 5.- Secondaries (S1-S8). 6.- Secondaries (S9-S17). 7.- Right wing secondaries and tertials. 8.- Outer vane details of secondaries. 9.- Secondary calamus details. 10.- Tips of secondaries details. 11.- Tertials details. 12.- S17. 13.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials. 14.- Nape feathers, front. 15.- Nape feathers, side. 16.- Nape feathers details. 17.- Nape feathers, back. 18.- Nape feathers, top view. 19.- Nape feathers. 20.- Nape feathers details. 21.- Nape feathers details. 22.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries. 23.- Primaries, secondaries, tertials. Greater primary and secondary coverts. 24.- Primary coverts. 25.- Primary coverts. 26.- Primaries, secondaries, tertials. Primary and greater coverts. Alulas. 27.- Greater coverts. 28.- Greater coverts + median coverts. 29.- Lesser coverts details. 30.- Alulas. 31.- Greater coverts. 32.- Top: median coverts. Bottom: lesser coverts. 33.- Rectrices. 34.- Rectrices. 35.- Rectrices + uppertail coverts. 36.- Right scapula. 37.- Right wing underwing feathers. 38.- Back feathers.

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