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Region of the body between the thorax and the pelvis.

Muscle that brings a part of the body closer to the median axis.

Birds that appear in a place or region outside their normal range migratory routes, more westerly or easterly, then where they were absent generally correspond to young and immature birds, of both migratory and partial migratory populations, as well as partial migrants they can also correspond to birds in dispersion or caused by escapes or irruptions.


A bird capable of reproduction.

Bird in adult plumaje.

A feather that results from a molting process.

Chamber communicated with the lungs, which acts as an extension of the lungs and penetrates the bones, lightening the bird´s weight.

Total or partial absence of pigmentation in the plumage.

Group of feathers from the leading edge of the wings of birds, which are inserted above the first toe, and race special funcions during flight.

In flight, the wing abruptly bent backwards at the carpus-metacarpus joint.

Living in trees.

The point where two or more bones come together.

One that progresses toward the bird’s body.

Regino f the ear.

Stiff feather with a structure similar to bristle, with abundant pointed barbules, located on the external acoustic meatus.

Feathers that cover the ear of a bird.

Set of birds in a country or region.

Feathers that cover the inner part of the junction between the body and the wing of a bird.

Tiny hooks found on the barbules, which serve to hold the lateral barbs of a feather together.

Delicate filaments that line the shaft of the feather.

Tiny filaments that keep the different barbs of a feather connected.

Plumage with transverse lines of variable thickness, contrasting with the rest of the color.

Oral organ of birds formed by the maxillae and a horny covering.

Said of the wing when the inner primaries are as long as the outer ones, and the wing presents two protrusions on its posterior part.

Zone of atmosphere, water, and land inhabited by living beings.

Bird belonging to the order Passeriformes.

Belonging or relating to the terrestrial northern hemisphere.

Plumage acquired by birds (usually males) during the breeding season.

Region between the base of the upper mandible of the beak and the eye.

Feather with a stiff rachis and few proximal barbs, mainly located around the mouth and eyes.

Bare area, on the abdomen of a bird that is incubating. Direct contact with the eggs increases their temperature.

Short, tubular lower part of the stem implanted in the follicle of a feather.

Upper layer of the forest formed by the crowns of trees (excluding emergents), which forms a more or less continuous covering layer like a roof or vault of the forest.

Head of a bird where its feathers contrast with the rest of the plumage.

Molt of the rectrices that starts at the tips and progresses towards the central feathers.

Membrane that surrounds the base of the bill of some birds.

A newly hatched bird, which is in down or developing its first plumage.

Posterior orifice of the digestive tract.

Point where the edges of a slit meet.

Feather Its vanes are flattened and ordered, although its proximal portion can be frayed (feathery part of the feather vane).

Feathers distributed throughout the bird’s body.


Group of feathers that some birds have on the top of their head.

Membranous sac that communicates with the esophagus of birds, in which food is softened.

Upper part of a bird’s head.

Line that extends longitudinally over the top of the head.

Said of the plumage that, by color and pattern, blends in with the surrounding environment.

Season between two similar molts or plumages.

Expulsion of feces through the anus.

One that progresses toward the wingtip.

Remains or residues of a disorganized body. Also called debris.

Refers to the farthest portion of a part or region.

Orifice on the surface of the feather quill, at the transition between the quill and the rachis. It is the remaining opening left by the papilla of the developing feather as it retracts from the encapsulated part of the rachis and vane towards the quill.

Anatomical region of a bird located between the posterior part of the neck and the rump or tail.

This term is used to designate the down of an adult bird. Their follicles are independent of those that generate contour feathers.

Feathers of immature plumage whose follicles will generate contour feathers and semiplumes.

Parasite that lives on the exterior of its host.

Long feathers that develop on herons during the breeding season.

Applied to the vane of a feather when it has a notch.

Refers to species found exclusively in a particular area.

The science that studies animal behavior, drawing on other biological disciplines to interpret observed patterns of behavior.

Genetic changes in a population that enable it to adapt to new environmental conditions.

Occurs when the last individual of a species dies.

Prominent stripe that starts at the base of the beak, crosses the eye, and extends to the auricular region.

More or less horizontal, long, wide, and visible band that extends over the eye.

Having a sickle-shaped form.

Category that groups related genera.

Solid segment of the stem, distal to the calamus, topographically on the skin and showing radial projections (barbs).

Thin and elongated feather in the shape of a thread.

Each of the feathers of the wings and tail, directly involved in flight.

Large group of birds flying together.

Extension of the beak over the forehead.

Type of tail in which the length of the outermost feathers is notably longer than the central ones, giving rise to an inverted “V” shape.

Ventral projection on the proximal portion of the feather barb, terminated in a hooked end. Its length and distal curvature decrease as they move away from the base of the feather.

Horny sheath that covers the lower mandible of the bill.

The largest wing coverts of the secondaries.

The natural environment in which a species lives permanently.

Refers to a species that is suitable or good for hunting.

An individual resulting from the cross between two genetically different parents.

The process during which the embryo develops inside the egg.

Refers to the position beneath the tail.

Feathers that cover the base of larger feathers from below.

Laminar tissue that keeps the anterior toes of a bird’s foot united.

Area between both shoulders of a bird.

Having a complicated design.

A young individual that has already become independent from its parents but has not yet reached all the characteristics of an adult.

The colored part of the eye around the pupil.

The action of reflecting light in a way that shows a range of colors, like the colors of the rainbow or some of them.

Feathers with metallic highlights, whose surface varies in color and intensity depending on the position of the feather with respect to the sun or other source of light.

Immature individual with a size similar to that of an adult but with different plumage.

Bird with the plumage developed in the nest.

It is the first plumage of a bird after down feathers. The word “juvenile” is also used for other characteristics of the bird, such as eye or tongue color. Juvenile plumage is the first basic plumage.

Prolongation of the sternum in the form of a protruding bone. Its where the muscles that operate the wings.

Feathers that cover the upper part of the leg.

Distance between the tip of the beak and the end of the tail.

Lack of pigmentation in the plumage resulting in a paler and duller coloration.

Refers to animals that feed by filtering mud.

Inhabitant of the coasts.

Long and narrow line that, due to the contrast of one color with another, is formed in the plumage of a bird.

Catalog of birds in a particular region.

The lower part of the bill.


Narrow prominent stripe that starts near the lower jaw and extends along the edge of the throat.

Each of the two parts of the beak.

Region of an bird’s anatomy between the back of the neck and the rump.

Opposite to lateral (medial).

Individual that presents an abnormally very dark or blackish plumage due to an excess of accumulated pigment.

Abnormal black or blackish coloring due to an overabundance of pigment.

It is the daily distance covered by a migrant each day during its travel.

Resembling the environment in which it lives.

Adoption of the color, shape or behavioral pattern of one species by another species for camouflage and protection.

Feather from which the molt begins, either upwards or downwards.

Of renewing an bird’s plumage that is usually performed once per season.

Prominent, narrow strip that starts in the vicinity of the lower mandible and extends along the lower edge of the cheek.

A black horny plate that some birds have on the upper mandible.

Each of the external nasal openings.

Membrane that slides transversely across the ocular surface, as a third eyelid.

Term that applies to birds that carry out their activities at night.

Area of an bird’s body located between the back and the tail.

Species with very scarce or accidental records.

These are the birds that cross during their migratory journeys to more distant destinations; neither the breeding area nor the resting area coincides with the reference country.

Perimeter of the eye formed by the union of the upper and lower eyelids.

Branch of zoology devoted to the study of birds.

Belonging to semi-flooded areas.

Relationship between two individuals of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.

Belonging to the chest.

Ball of hair, bones, and other indigestible materials regurgitated from the beak.

Post, branch or other place where a bird perches.

Variants in the coloration presented by individuals of certain species, not related to sex, age, etc.

Upper part of a bird’s head between the forehead and the nape.

These are the feathers of the same generation; that is, they grew during the same moult.

Animals whose body temperature varies with the environment. Also known as cold-blooded animals. Does not include birds.

Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area.

Action of killing and eating an individual of one species by an individual of another.

The process by which birds maintain their feathers in optimal condition.

Remiges inserted into the metacarpus of the wing. In the Strigiformes, there are ten and they are usually numbered in descending order.

The largest wing coverts of the primaries.

Orifice at the basal end of the quill. It is the remaining opening through which the papilla of the feather penetrates during its development.

Solid shaft of a feather.

Tail feathers. In the Strigiformes there are twelve and they are numbered in pairs from the central ones to the outer most.

Feather found on the wing of a bird.

Bird’s plumage outside the breeding season, generally more subdued in appearance than the nuptial plumage.

Describes feathers mainly of the wing and tail when they are typically narrow towards the apex or have a notch or groove. Also called emarginated.

Action of placing a ring on a bird for scientific purposes.

Elongated feathers on the dorsal side of the neck, generally somewhat erect.

Adornment that hangs from the throat.


Design of feathers that resemble scales.

Feathers that cover the shoulder blade of a bird.

Change in the appearance of the plumage of a bird due, generally, to a change in environmental conditions, especially climatic ones.

Feathers attached to the ulna of the wing. They are usually numbered from the outside to the inside.

Feather of intermediate structure between the contour feather and the bristle. It presents scarce wattles, located along the rachis, and even some barbules of  simplified structure.

It presents a longer rachis of a greater length than the largest of the beards. Its standards are frayed (feathery) since they are integrated by feathery beards.

It manifests itself in a series of different external characteristics in males and females.

The strong horny axis of the feather, consisting of the hollow and lower part called the quill and the solid and upper part called the rachis.

(1) Hollow part of a bird’s feather; (2) Feather of a bird when it begins to grow.


Taxonomic classification unit. A population of similar individuals with identical structure and function that only reproduce with each other in nature.

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Bright patch that some birds have on their secondary feathers.

Sharp claw found on the outer edge of the wing in some birds.

Plumage that appears to have longitudinal stripes along the body trunk.

Stage between the chick and the adult, with particular plumage.

Before the apex.

Stripe found in a plane below the eye.

Under the marginal region.

Species present in a specific area between late spring and early autumn.

More or less horizontal, long, wide, and visible stripe that is distributed over the eye.

Relating to or belonging to the tail.

Science that names and describes individuals.

Inner wing feathers that cover the wing when folded.

Prominent stripe found on the throat.

Small feathers that cover the base of the tail from below.

Without feathers, such as the head and neck of chickens.

Each of the rays that project from either the hyporachis or the distal edge of the umbilicus, which together make up the hypoestandart.

Feathers covering the base of the other larger feathers (wings, tail).

Gland that most birds have on the rump, and whose fatty secretion serves to care for and protect the plumage from water.

Pertaining to the belly, abdomen (e.g. ventral spot = spot on the belly).

The underside of the wing exposed during flight.

Feathers in the form of hairs that have a tactile function; they are arranged to the corners of the beak, nostrils or around the eyes.

Popular name for long-legged birds, flamingos, herons, egrets, storks.

A moist or wet piece of land.

Colored area on the wing, only visible while the bird is flying.

Small feathers that cover the exterior part of the wings. They are divided into primary, secondary, or tertiary coverts.

Colored band at the tips of the secondary feathers, very noticeable in flight.

Distance between the tips of the wings when fully extended.

An individual that has two fingers (internal and middle) pointing forward and another two (external and thumb) towards the back.


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