Sitta europaea
English: Eurasian Nuthatch.
German: Kleiber.
French: Sittelle torchepot.
Order: Passeriformes.
Family: Sittidae.
12-14 cm.
It is not possible to confuse the Eurasian Nuthatch any other Iberian species.
Males (adults and juveniles) have intense reddish-brown flanks and under-tail coverts, which are well differentiated from the rest of the feathers. In some males, the reddish-brown tone is limited to a few feathers. Females have light reddish-brown flanks and under-tail coverts with blurred boundaries with the rest of the lower parts.
It is possible to recognize 3 different ages:

Juvenile specimen: it has a similar appearance to the adult. If anything, juveniles have a more subdued blue and brown hue than adults. The cheek band is less intense black. The plumage is complete of the same generation and without apparent wear.

1st year/2nd year specimen: generally presents a limit of molt between the median coverts contrasting with the retained juvenile feathers tinged with a gray-brown with a slight bluish tint, and the new feathers of the same bluish color of the lesser coverts and scapulars. In the case of having changed the large under-tail coverts, they are clearly bluer than the juvenile outer ones of the previous generation. Flight feathers are slightly more brown and worn than those of adults on the same date.

Adult specimen: these individuals lack a molt limit in the wing coverts. The cheek has a band of intense black color. Flight feathers are darker and newer than those of post-juvenile birds on the same date.
Eurasian Nuthatch undergo a complete post-nuptial molt process that usually ends in September. On the other hand, post-juvenile molt is a partial process in which body feathers, median and lesser coverts, and certain individuals, some tertiary and under-tail coverts change. This molt usually ends in September.
Primaries: 10 per wing.
Secundaries: per wing.
Rectrices: 12.


Adult specimen:
Beak tip to pupil center:

Adult male specimen


1-. Left wing primaries. 2.- Primaries. 3.- Primaries details. 4.- Primaries tip details. 5.- Inner primaries tip details. 6.- Outer vane details of outer primaries. 7.- Outer vane details of outer primaries. 8.- Left wing secondaries and tertials. 9.- Secondaries and tertials. 10.- Secondaries tip details. 11.- Secondaries details. 12.- Tertial details. 13.- Outer vane details of secondaries and tertials. 14.- Details of S6 (previous generation). 15.- Left wing primaries, secondaries and tertials. 16.- Primaries, secondaries and tertials. 17.- Details of P10. 18.- Primaries, secondaries and tertials. Primary coverts and greater coverts. 19.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials. Primary and secondary coverts (greater, median, and lesser). Alula. 20.- Details of primary coverts. 21.- Details of greater coverts. 22.- Details of lesser coverts. 23.- Details of lesser coverts. 24.- Details of lesser coverts. 25.- Primary coverts. 26.- Secondary coverts. 27.- Alulas. 28.- Alulas. 29.- Rectrices. 30.- Rectrices. 31.- Details of outer rectrices. 32.- Details of central rectrices. 33.- Details of outer rectrices. 34.- Rectrices + uppertail coverts. 35.- Details of uppertail coverts. 36.- Rectrices + undertail coverts. 37.- Details of undertail coverts. 38.- Details of undertail coverts. 39.- Left scapula. 40.- Left scapular feathers. 41.- Primary infra-coverts. 42.- Secondary infra-coverts. 43.- Left flank feathers. 44.- Chest feathers. 45.- Mounting of back feathers. 46.- Back feathers. 47.- Crown feathers.

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