EURASIAN GOLDEN-ORIOLE

Oriolus oriolus
Oropéndola europea
English: Eurasian Golden-Oriole.
German: Pirol.
French: Loriot d’Europe.
Order: Passeriformes.
Family: Oriolidae.
24-25 cm.
It is not possible to confuse the Eurasian Golden-Oriole with any other species in the Iberian Peninsula.
DESCRIBED IN THE “AGEING” SECTION
It is possible to recognize three different ages:

Juvenile and 1st year specimen: they have new feathers. The feathers on the back and wing coverts are bathed in a brown-olive with a yellow edge. The undersides are intensely speckled, the brow is a faded gray, the beak is dark brown, and the iris is dark brown. The central pair of rectrices are pointed. Juvenile and 1st year specimens cannot be sexed using feather design.

2nd year specimen: both males and females maintain the juvenile appearance with the undersides always streaked. The central pair of rectrices already have a round tip. The iris is reddish. The 2nd year male generally has the primary coverts with the clear tip measuring 1-10mm. The yellow tip of R6 measures 24-35mm. The malar region band is yellowish. On the other hand, the female has the primary coverts with the clear tip of 1-5mm. The yellow tip of R6 is about 17-28mm. The malar region band is clear, with intermediate plumages being very common.

Adult specimen: On one hand, the adult female has a gorget that is dark gray in color. Generally, the lower parts are gray-white with sparse barring, and the cheek-stripe is clear. Occasionally, females with a design similar to that of the male may appear, with yellowish lower parts and only diffusely speckled, even with a yellow cheek-stripe. This adult female is distinguishable from the 2nd-year male by having a clear gorget (except for those that look like a male). The back is greenish in color. The adult female is distinguished from the 2nd-year female by having the white-yellow tip of the primary coverts more extensive (5-10 mm) and the barring on the lower parts fainter. On the other hand, the adult male is unmistakable by his intense yellow body plumage. The lower parts are devoid of bars. The lore is completely black. The central pair of rectrices is black to the base or almost to the base. The wing feathers are black in color. R6 has a wide yellow patch at the tip (26-38 mm). The primary coverts are black with a wide yellow patch at the tip (7-16 mm).
The Eurasian Golden-Oriole undergoes a very variable partial post-nuptial molt. It usually changes the body feathers, some underwing coverts, and may include some inner and tertial secondary feathers. Generally, this process is usually completed in the month of September.

On the other hand, the post-juvenile molt is a partial process that includes the body feathers, the small, medium, and large underwing secondary coverts, and in some cases, the tertials. Both age classes undergo a complete pre-nuptial molt in their wintering areas, and may retain some secondary feathers or rectrices.
Primaries: 10 per wing.
Secundaries: 10 per wing.
Rectrices: 12.
Link: http://blascozumeta.com/

Medidas/Measures

Adult specimen:
Beak tip to pupil center:
Tarsus:

Adult female specimen

1.- Right wing primaries. 2.- Primaries. 3.- Details of the outer vane of the primaries. 4.- Details of the tip of the primaries. 5.- Right wing secondaries and tertials. 6.- secondaries and tertials. 7.- Details of the outer vane of the secondaries. 8.- Details of the tip of the secondaries. 9.- Tertials. 10.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials of the right wing. 11.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials of the right wing. 12.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials. Primary coverts and greater coverts. 13.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials. Primary coverts and greater coverts + median coverts. 14.- Primaries, secondaries, and tertials. Primary coverts and secondary coverts (greater, median, and lesser). Alulas. 15.- Details of the primary coverts. 16.- Details of the tip of the primary coverts. 17.- Details of the greater coverts. 18.- Details of the lesser coverts. 19.- Details of the median coverts. 20.- Primary coverts. 21.- Greater coverts. 22.- Alulas. 23.- Rectrices. 24.- Rectrices. 25.- Details of the tip of the rectrices. 26.- Details of the rectrices. 27.- Rectrices + uppertail coverts. 28.- Details of the uppertail coverts. 29.- Uppertail coverts. 30.- Rectrices + undertail coverts. 31.- Details of the undertail coverts. 32.- Undertail coverts. 33.- Primary infra-coverts. 34.- Greater secondary infra-coverts. 35.- Right flank feathers and mount. 36.- Right axilla feathers. 37.- Right scapula mount. 38.- Right scapula feathers. 39.- Back mount. 40.- Back feathers. 41.- Belly feathers and mount. 42.- Below: chest feathers. Above: throat feathers. 43.- Crown feathers. 44.- Lore feathers.

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